Special Education is that component of education which employs special instructional methodology (Remedial Instruction), instructional materials, learning-teaching aids and equipment to meet educational needs of children with specific learning disabilities. Remedial instruction or Remediation aims at improving a skill or ability in a student. Techniques for remedial instruction may include providing more practice or more explanation, repeating information, and devoting more time to working on the skill.

      Effective teaching strategies may include the use of ‘procedural facilitators’ like planning sheets, writing frames, story mapping and teacher modeling of cognitive strategies, although for quality and independence in learning it is crucial to extend these technical aids with elaborated ‘higher order’ questioning and dialogue between teachers and pupils.

      Special education teachers use various techniques to promote learning such as :

  • Approaches that encourage children to regulate their behavior by teaching them self monitoring, self-instruction and self-reinforcement skills are effective in producing adaptive behavior change (i.e. increased on-task behavior, reductions in anti-social behavior).
  • Approaches using positive reinforcement (where appropriate behavior is immediately rewarded), behavior reduction strategies (such as reprimands and redirection), and response cost (a form of punishment in which something important is taken away) appear to be effective in increasing on-task behavior.
  • Combinations of approaches (e.g. cognitive-behavioral with family therapy) are more effective in facilitating positive social, emotional and behavioral outcomes than single approaches alone.

      Depending on the disability, teaching methods can include individualized instruction, problem-solving assignments, and small group work. Special education teachers help to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each special child. The IEP sets personalized goals for each student and is tailored to the student’s individual needs and ability. Teachers work closely with parents to inform them of their child’s progress and suggest techniques to promote learning at home.

     They are involved in the students’ behavioral, social, and academic development, helping the students develop emotionally, feel comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior. Special education teachers communicate and work together with parents, social workers, school psychologists, speech therapists, occupational and physical therapists, school administrators, and other teachers.

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